Spatial models of antipredator vigilance in birds by Carole J. Proctor

Cover of: Spatial models of antipredator vigilance in birds | Carole J. Proctor

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Written in English

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Edition Notes

D.Phil. 2000. BLDSC DXN036526.

Book details

Statement[by] Carole Proctor.
SeriesSussex theses ; S 4921
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL18573329M

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Many mathematical models of antipredator vigilance in birds have been developed (e.g.,,). Most models seek to predict the optimal time that birds should spend feeding versus the time spent being vigilant.

Proctor and Broom also considered the area of the flock as a strategic variable under natural selection. This model assumed that it Cited by:   Many animals spend their lives performing two often mutually exclusive tasks: feeding and watching out for predators (anti-predator vigilance).

There Cited by:   A spatial model of antipredator vigilance A spatial model of antipredator vigilance C. PROCTOR, M. BROOM Many species of animals have to perform two contradictozy tasks: feeding, and avoiding becoming food for others. A large number of theoretical and empirical studies have investigated the trade-off between feeding and antipredator vigilance, especially in birds.

A Spatial Model of Anti-Predator Vigilance. By C.J. Proctor and M. Broom. Abstract. Many species of animals have to perform two contradictory tasks; feeding and avoiding becoming food for others. A large number of theoretical and empirical studies have investigated the trade-off between feeding and anti-predator vigilance, especially in birds Author: C.J.

Proctor and M. Broom. A spatial model of antipredator vigilance. Proctor CJ(1), Broom M. Author information: (1)Centre for Statistics and Stochastic Modelling, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, UK.

[email protected] Many species of animals have to perform two contradictory tasks: feeding, and avoiding becoming food for by: 6. communication-based spatial model antipredator vigilance vigilance model environmental condition real bird spaced individual anti-predator vigilance predation risk increase together experience mutuallyexclusive task empirical study many animal group perform different assumption vigilance rate feeding rate decrease important factor vigilance.

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Many species of animals have to perform two contradictory tasks; feeding and avoiding becoming food for others. A large number of theoretical and empirical studies have investigated the trade-off between feeding and anti-predator vigilance, especially in birds.

An important factor which has been neglected in these. Previous models of antipredator vigilance assume that all birds within the group spend the same amount of time feeding.

However, many empirical studies have shown that individuals on the edge of. Therefore, theoretical models predict (McNamara and Houston ) that antipredator vigilance can decrease in larger groups at no increased risk to individual foragers. Supporting this prediction, the group-size effect on vigilance has been documented in many species of birds and mammals (Elgar ).

Previous models of antipredator vigilance assume that all birds within the group spend the same amount of time feeding. and the resulting set of plan views is assembled to give the spatial. Many mathematical models of antipredator vigilance in birds have been developed (e.g.

[2,3,8– 11]). Most models seek to predict the optimal time that birds should spend feeding versus the time spent being vigilant. Proctor and Broom [12] also considered the area of the flock as a strategic variable under natural selection.

Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals will be of interest to both specialists and general readers interested in ecological issues.

"Devoted" by Dean Koontz For the first time in paperback, from Dean Koontz, the master of suspense, comes an epic Reviews: 2. c Predators select low-vigilance individuals d Individuals maintain vigilance so as not to lose group members e Multiple attacks are possible Vigilance in mixed-species groups Summary 5 Factors affecting vigilance Introduction Distance from conspecifics and perceived group size Position in the group Sentinels.

A Communication-Based Spatial Model of Antipredator Vigilance since communication between individuals is more difficult, such that the predation risk increases. A vigilance model is developed which allows birds to control their spacing (and so the area of the flock) as well as their vigilance rate.

The best strategy for the birds is found. Creel S, Winnie J, Jr, Christianson D, Liley S. Time and space in general models of antipredator response: tests with wolves and elk. Anim. Behav. ; – Creel S, Christianson D, Winnie J., Jr A survey of the effects of wolf predation risk on pregnancy rates and calf recruitment in elk.

Ecol. Appl. ; – () A communication-based spatial model of antipredator vigilance. Journal of Theoretical Biology Broom,M & Ruxton,G.D. () Evolutionarily stable kleptoparasitism: consequences of different prey types. Behavioral Ecology 14 Broom,M. Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against hout the animal kingdom, adaptations have evolved for every stage of this struggle, namely by avoiding detection, warding off.

Spatial models of antipredator vigilance in birds. Author: Proctor, Carole. ISNI: Awarding Body: University of Sussex Current Institution: University of Sussex Date of Award: Availability of Full Text: Access from EThOS.

A vigilance model is developed which allows birds to control their spacing (and so the area of the flock) as well as their vigilance rate. The best strategy for the birds is found under a variety of environmental conditions, under the assumption that each individual acts selfishly to maximize its own fitness.

r Elsevier Science Ltd. A comparative experiment with live and robotic birds, Behavioral Ecology, Wenfa Xiao, Influences of sex, group size, and spatial position on vigilance behavior of Przewalski’s gazelles, Acta A Communication-Based Spatial Model of Antipredator Vigilance, Journal of Theoretical Biology, /jtbi,1.

studied intensively as a component of antipredator behavior (Caro, ). In general, members in large groups spend less time vigilant (Caro, ; Lima & Dill, ). However, a large amount of variation support a higher vigilance arising from many eyes scanning in birds, suggesting that. Proctor, C J and Broom, M () A Spatial Model of Antipredator Vigilance.

IMA Journal of Mathematics in Medicine and Biology, 17 (1). ISSN Full. When animals face time constraints, antipredator vigilance is expected to decrease in patches with higher food density. Indeed, sacrifices in safety are worthwhile in rich food patches that allow substantial foraging gains in response to a decrease in vigilance.

This. A mathematical model (Pulliam ) predicts a negative relationship between group size and vigilance rates. Over fifty studies of birds and mammals report a negative correlation between group size and vigilance behaviour and most conclude that the relationship at least partly explains why individuals forage in groups.

4. Discussion. Skimming and probing are two distinct foraging modes in sandpipers. Birds spent more time head down when skimming than probing. Probing occurred at a much lower density than skimming, consistent with the view that probing is a visual search mode for burrowing invertebrates that requires individuals to spread apart to reduce foraging interference [].

Proctor, Carole J, Broom, Mark and Ruxton, Graeme D () A communication-based spatial model of antipredator vigilance.

Journal of Theoretical Biology, (1). ISSN Full text not available from this repository. We examined spatial heterogeneity in real and perceived risk across an urbanization gradient by comparing survival rates, causes of mortality, and antipredator behavior of adult woodchucks (Marmota monax (L., )) within an agricultural landscape in Illinois from to Survival rates were higher, and effects of urbanization were.

The production of neck spines by Daphnia pulex in response to the presence of predatory Chaoborus larvae entails a demographic cost as well as a benefit in reducing predation. I develop a model that quantitatively analyzes the costs and benefits of defensive spine formation in D. pulex by modifying life tables of both the spined (SM) and typical (TM) morphs of this prey to account for the.

logical variables. Our major goals are to develop a spatial model of perceived predation risk for C. capucinus in this study system and to determine whether this risk is informative for predicting the occur-rence of a putative antipredator behavior, vigilance.

We. Introduction. Antipredator vigilance is crucial for survival in many group-living animals. However, if information from vigilant individuals is immediately and perfectly shared with all other individuals in the group, then nonvigilant freeloaders might benefit from the vigilance effort of others without any of the associated costs, such as foraging time (McNamara and Houston ).

When a predator attacks, prey are faced with a series of 'if', 'when' and 'how' escape decisions - these critical questions are the foci of this book. Cooper and Blumstein bring together a balance of theory and empirical research to summarise over fifty years of scattered research and benchmark current thinking in the rapidly expanding literature on the behavioural ecology of escaping.

1. Introduction. In socially foraging species, individuals tend to be less vulnerable to predation in larger groups, in the centre of a group and when closer to other group members (Krause & Ruxton ).Consequently, many studies have reported a reduction in vigilance by individuals foraging in these situations (see Krause & Ruxton ; Beauchamp for reviews; but Treves for.

literature examining variation in the vigilance of group members, few studies have considered how these individuals assess the key variables to which they adjust their vigilance, specifically the size of their group and their spatial position and proximity to others within it (Beauchamp ). It is commonly assumed that individuals gain.

Ellen Evers, Han de Vries, Berry M. Spruijt, Elisabeth H. Sterck, Look before you leap - individual variation in social vigilance shapes socio-spatial group properties in an agent-based model, Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, /s, 66, 6, (), ().

In large flocks, birds at the leading edge of the flock had faster step rates and travelled further than birds in the centre and at the trailing edge. Rates of movement in small flocks did not vary with flock position.

Levels of vigilance were higher during the first 10 min after. Animals adjust their antipredator behavior according to environmental variation in risk, and to account for their ability to respond to threats.

Intrinsic factors that influence an animal’s ability to respond to predators (e.g., age, body condition) should explain variation in antipredator behavior. For example, a juvenile might allocate more time to vigilance than an adult because mortality. birds than previously thought, so perhaps birds also lose less water than expected.

The birds may also pos- antipredator vigilance. But how much. Animals may also avoid risky places to remain safe. But how does spatial pared the risk allocation hypothesis with a null model (vigilance should not be influenced by levels of risk), the.

cover. Our individual-based model makes several predictions about scan and interscan durations, which are discussed in relation to the available empirical evidence in birds and mammals. This model of antipredator vigilance is a first step in incorporating constraints related to food gathering and the detection of predators.

Adding such. Many birds and mammals vary the amount of time allocated to the mutually-exclusive activities of foraging and antipredator vigilance as a function of the number of adjacent conspecifics. This fundamental tradeoff has important consequences for the evolution of sociality but could result from two very different pathways: feeding competition, or a reduction in the risk of predation.

Lima, J.T. Vigilance while feeding and its relation to the risk of predation. Journal of Theoretical Biology – Lima, J.T. Collective detection of predatory attack by birds in the absence of alarm calls.

Journal of Avian Biology – Lima, S.L. Back to the basics of antipredatory vigilance. Carole J. Proctor has written: 'Spatial models of antipredator vigilance in birds' What has the author Allen J Frantzen written?

Allen J. Frantzen has written: 'Bloody good'. The antipredator function of aggregation by pollock in open habitat is supported by increases in the proportion shoaling and in average shoal sizes following exposure to the predator model. These responses were observed in most treatments without algae, where fish could not retreat to cover, and for the fish treatment with algae where many.Since the last edition of this definitive textbook was published inmuch has happened in the field of animal behavior.

In this fourth edition, Lee Alan Dugatkin draws on cutting-edge new work not only to update and expand on the studies presented, but also to reinforce the previous editions’ focus on ultimate and proximate causation, as well as the book’s unique emphasis on natural.

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